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The term "literature review" could be used in several ways in your assignment instructions:
Conducting a review of the literature
Including a literature review section in your essay
Writing a stand-alone literature review
Conducting a review of the literaturegenerally just means finding scholarly articles, books and grey literature on your topic, to use in your research essay.
Including a literature review section in your essay generally means including a couple paragraphs in your essay with a "Literature Review" heading that discusses the state of current research in your area of interest.
Or you could be asked to produce a stand-alone literature review based on a research topic, which is a long form paper that reviews, compares and evaluates current research on your topic.
Literature Review Tutorial
The tutorial below will provide an introduction to what a literature review is (and is not) and why you would write one.