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Data and Statistics

An overview of topics related to data and statistics.

How to cite:

There are many different types of data that are cited in different ways. Below are the most frequent ones that you will encounter during your academic studies.

bar chart icon Infographics, Charts, Tables, & Graphs

To cite a visual data element from published reports see Seneca Libraries' citation styleguides for APA (7th Edition) and MLA (9th Edition).

person studying chart icon Statistical Data

To cite published statistics from resources such as Statistics Canada or Statista see Seneca Libraries' citation styleguides for APA (7th Edition) and MLA (9th Edition).

buildings icon Data from a Repository

Some data sources provide their own citation standards and guidelines - follow these if they are available. Otherwise, format them as you would format other resources and include the following information.

Data Cite recommends the following format:

Creator (PublicationYear). Title. Version. Publisher. ResourceType. Identifier

For more information, see the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (final).

For another example, see IASSIST's Quick Guide to Data Citation.

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