See the Fair Dealing page for more information
Publicly Available Materials (PAMs)
Most of the materials found online, such as content from websites, are protected by copyright. The publicly available materials (PAMs) exemption in the Canadian copyright law allows faculty to copy Internet content for the purpose of education. In order to use this exemption, the following conditions must be met:
What are Technological Protection Measures or Digital Locks?
Digital locks are devices or tools used to protect copyright-protected materials from illegal use. These include read-only documents, password-protected materials, watermarks on an image.
Section 41.1 of the Copyright Act prohibits the circumvention or breaking of a technological protection measure or digital lock.
Note: There are no educational exemptions that permit the breaking of a digital lock or circumventing the technological protection measure. If a copy is needed and there is a digital lock you must request permission from the copyright holder.
Publisher-issued Course Materials
Generally, when a textbook is adopted for use in a course and the students enrolled in the course are required to purchase the textbook, the publisher of that textbook will give permission to make use of additional accompanying instructional materials like instructor's manuals, assignment workbooks, solutions, and presentation slides. There are some exceptions where publishers will only allow certain solutions to be posted. This information will be in the textbook agreement from the publisher. If unsure contact email@example.com and we will help in getting the correct permissions required.
Modifying Content in Publisher-Issued Slides
You can add content to slides (text or images) but you are not allowed to remove or reproduce the content from the slides.
Library Database Content
It is important to note that licensing agreements override rights in the Copyright Act and the terms of the license must be followed.
Faculty members are allowed to show an online video in class as long as the following conditions are met:
If you would like a second opinion as to whether a video is acceptable to show in class please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Open Educational Resources (OERs)
"…any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them. OERs range from textbooks to curricula, syllabi, lecture notes, assignments, tests, projects, audio, video and animation." (Source)
For more information, see Seneca College Faculty Guide to OERs.
Icon: ebook by Vectors Market from the Noun Project
Case studies, such as those published by Harvard Business and Ivey, are copyright-protected. Individual or class licenses to use case studies are purchased directly from the publisher. Note that case studies cannot be shared with your students unless you purchase a class set.
Alternatives to using licensed business cases:
See our Case Studies for Business in the Business Subject Guide for more tips and links to finding case studies.
Icon by Tomas Knopp from the Noun Project
Coursepacks are custom packages of materials collected for a course usually used in replacement of/for a text. For coursepack photocopying under Xerox's Access Copyright Interim Tariff or Model License, no copying can exceed 20% of a published work or the following, whichever is greater:
Please note that all limits are based on a semester time frame. You may not copy the percentages allowed on a weekly basis. Cumulative copying is not allowed.
The Copyright Law has a section called “Non-commercial User-generated Content” (section 29.21) which allows Canadians to use copyrighted materials like videos, music, images, and scanned printed materials to create transformative works and share them publicly with some conditions. You can think of this as the "mash-up" exception.
Videos created by students for class may qualify as mash-ups, however, there are some important conditions that must be followed:
See the Educational Exemptions page for more information on: