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COM101/111: Introduction to Research & APA Citation

annotated bibliographies

What is an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a list which includes citations to different sources, and short summaries and/or evaluations of each sources.


The two main parts of the annotated bibliography are:

  1. Reference list citation: This is the full citation for the source. See the library's APA Citation Guide  examples for citing different sources.
  2. Annotation: This is a short summary and/or evaluation of the source (usually 1 to 2 paragraphs) which follows the citation. Remember to check assignment instructions if you are required to include a summary and evaluation of your source in the annotation.


Example of an annotated bibliography entry:

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Types of annotations

Summary annotation: describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what does the document discuss, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.

Evaluative annotation: includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.

Additional resource